The role and place of play in the educational process of preschool educational institutions in the context of the introduction of the Federal State Educational Standard

Program tasks of gaming activities

Yana Vasilyeva

Program tasks of gaming activities

Development of gaming activities

Second group of early age (2-3 years)

Role-playing games. Teach children to show interest in the playful activities of their peers; help play nearby, do not interfere with each other.

Learn to perform several actions with one object and transfer familiar actions from one object to another; with the help of an adult, perform several game actions united by a plot outline. Promote children’s desire to independently select toys and attributes for play, and use substitute items.

Lead children to understand the role in the game. Form initial skills of role behavior; learn to connect plot actions with the role.

Develop the prerequisites for creativity.

Outdoor games. To develop in children a desire to play outdoor games with simple content together with the teacher. Get used to playing together in small groups. Support games that improve movement (walking, running, throwing, rolling)


Theatrical games. Arouse interest in theatrical play through the first experience of communicating with a character (the Katya doll shows

concert, expanding contacts with adults (grandmother invites you to the village yard)


Encourage children to respond to games-actions with sounds (living and inanimate nature, imitate the movements of animals and birds to music, to the sound of a word (in works of small folklore forms)


Promote the manifestation of independence and activity in playing with toy characters.

Create conditions for the systematic perception of theatrical performances of the pedagogical theater (adults)


Didactic games. To enrich children’s sensory experience in games with didactic material. Consolidate knowledge about the size, shape, color of objects. Learn to assemble a pyramid (tower)

of 5–8 rings of different sizes; navigate the relationships between plane figures

“Geometric mosaic”
(circle, triangle, square, rectangle)
make a whole from four parts (cut pictures, folding cubes)
compare, correlate, group, establish the identity and difference of homogeneous objects according to one of the sensory attributes (color, shape, size)

Conduct didactic games to develop attention and memory ( “What’s missing?”

and so on.);
auditory differentiation ( “What sounds?”
, etc.);
tactile sensations, temperature differences ( “Wonderful bag”

"Warm - cold"

“Light - heavy”,
fine motor skills (toys with buttons, hooks, zippers, lacing, etc.)

Junior group (3-4 years old)

Role-playing games. To encourage children to develop games on themes from life around them, based on literary works (rhymes, songs, fairy tales, poems)

enriching gaming experience by combining individual actions into a single storyline.
Develop the ability to choose a role, perform several interrelated actions while playing with toys (cook dinner, set the table, feed)

Learn to interact in stories with two characters (driver - passenger, mother - daughter, doctor - patient)
; in individual games with substitute toys, play the role for yourself and for the toy.

Show ways of role-playing behavior using educational games. Encourage children to try to independently select attributes for a particular role; supplement the game environment with missing items,


To complicate and enrich the subject-game environment through the use of multifunctional items and an increase in the number

toys. Teach children to use building materials in games (cubes, bars, plates, simple wooden and plastic construction sets, natural materials (sand, snow, water)

; act with them in a variety of ways (build a slide for dolls, a bridge, a road; sculpt a fence or house out of snow; float toys on water).

Develop the ability to interact and get along with each other in short-term joint games.

Outdoor games. To develop children’s activity in motor activities . Organize games with all the children in the group. Encourage games with wheelchairs, cars, carts, bicycles; games that develop climbing and crawling skills; games with balls, spheres, developing dexterity of movements.

Gradually introduce games with more complex rules and changing types of movements.

Theatrical games. Arouse children's interest in theatrical play, create conditions for its implementation. To develop the ability to follow the development of action in dramatization games and puppet shows created by adults and older children.

Teach children to imitate the characteristic actions of characters (birds fly, a kid jumps, convey the emotional state of a person (facial expressions, posture, gesture, movement)


Introduce children to the techniques of driving tabletop dolls. Learn to accompany movements with a simple song.

Create a desire to act with costume elements (hats, collars, etc.)

and attributes as external symbols of the role.

Develop the desire to improvise on simple plots of songs and fairy tales. Create a desire to perform in front of dolls and peers,

arranging the venue for the performance.

Encourage participation in conversations about the theater (theater - actors - spectators, behavior of people in the auditorium)


Didactic games. Strengthen children’s ability to select objects by color and size (large, medium and small balls of 2-3 colors, assemble a pyramid of rings of decreasing size, alternating 2-3 colors in a certain sequence. Teach to assemble a picture from 4-6 parts ( “ Our dishes"

, etc.).

In joint didactic games, teach children to follow gradually more complex rules.

Middle group (4 -5 years old)

Role-playing games. Continue working with children to develop and enrich the plots of games; Using indirect methods of guidance, lead children to independently create game plans .

In joint games with the teacher, containing 2-3 roles, improve the children’s ability to unite in the game, distribute roles (mother, father, children, perform game actions , act in accordance with the rules and the general game plan .

Learn to select objects and attributes for the game.

Develop the ability to use buildings made from building materials in a role-playing game. Encourage children to create buildings of varying structural complexity (for example, a garage for several cars, a house of 2-3 floors, a wide bridge for the passage of cars or trains going in two directions, etc.).

Teach children to agree on what they will build, distribute material among themselves, coordinate actions and achieve results through joint efforts.

Nurture friendly relationships between children, develop the ability to take into account the interests of comrades.

Expand the scope of children’s independent actions in choosing a role, developing and implementing a plan, and using attributes; develop the social relationships of those playing by understanding the professional activities of adults .

Outdoor games. Continue to develop physical activity; agility, speed, spatial orientation.

To foster children's independence in organizing familiar games with a small group of peers.

Train yourself to follow rules independently.

Develop children’s creative abilities in games (inventing game options, combining movements)


Theatrical games. Continue to develop and maintain children’s interest in theatrical play by acquiring more complex gaming skills (the ability to perceive an artistic image, monitor the development and interaction of characters).

Conduct studies to develop the necessary mental qualities (perception, imagination, attention, thinking, performance skills (role-playing, ability to act in an imaginary plan)

and sensations (muscular, sensory, using musical, verbal, visual images.

Teach children to perform simple performances based on familiar literary works; use to embody an image

known means of expression (intonation, facial expressions, gesture)


Encourage children to show initiative and independence in choosing a role, plot, and means of transformation; provide the opportunity for experimentation when creating the same image.

To learn to feel and understand the emotional state of the hero, to enter into role-playing interactions with other characters.

To promote the diversified development of children in theatrical activities by tracking the number and nature of the roles performed by each child.

Promote the further development of director's play by providing space, play materials and the opportunity for several children to join together for long periods of play.

To teach the use of figurative toys and bibabo, independently sculpted figures from clay, plastic, plasticine, and toys from Kinder surprises in theatrical games.

Continue to use the capabilities of the pedagogical theater (for adults)

for the accumulation of emotional and sensory experience, for children to understand the complex of expressive means used in the performance.

Didactic games. Learn to play didactic games aimed at consolidating ideas about the properties of objects, improving the ability to compare objects by external characteristics, group, and make a whole from parts (cubes, mosaics, puzzles)


Improve tactile, auditory, and taste sensations (“Identify by touch (by taste, by sound)

Develop observation and attention ( “What has changed”
“Who has the ring”

Encourage the desire to master the rules of the simplest board games ( “Domino”


Senior group (5-6 years old)

Role-playing games. Improve and expand play ideas and skills. Develop a desire to organize role-playing games.

Encourage the choice of a theme for the game; teach to develop a plot based on knowledge gained from the perception of the environment, from literary works and television programs, excursions, exhibitions, travel, hikes.

Teach children to agree on the theme of the game; distribute roles, prepare the necessary conditions, agree on the sequence of joint actions, establish and regulate contacts in a joint game: negotiate, reconcile, give in, convince, etc. Learn to independently resolve conflicts that arise during the game. Contribute to the strengthening of sustainable children's play associations .

Continue to develop the ability to coordinate your actions with

actions of partners, observe role interactions and relationships in the game. Develop emotions that arise during role-playing and plot game actions with characters.

Learn to complicate the game by expanding the composition of roles, coordinating and predicting role actions and behavior in accordance with the plot of the game, and increasing the number of combined storylines.

Contribute to enriching a familiar game with new solutions (participation of an adult, changing attributes, introducing substitute items or introducing a new role). Create conditions for creative self-expression; for the emergence of new games and their development.

Teach children to collectively build buildings necessary for the game, plan upcoming work, and carry out their plans together. Learn to apply constructive skills acquired in class.

Form the habit of carefully putting toys away in the designated place.

Outdoor games. Continue to teach children to independently organize familiar outdoor games; participate in games with competitive elements. Introduce folk games.

Cultivate honesty and fairness in independent games with peers.

Theatrical games. Continue to develop interest in

theatrical play by actively involving children in play activities . Create a desire to try yourself in different roles.

To complicate the game material by presenting more and more promising ones to the children (from the point of view of dramaturgy)

tasks ( “You were poor Cinderella, and now you are a beautiful princess”

“This role has not yet been revealed to anyone”

, changing tactics of working on
a game or performance.
Create an atmosphere of creativity and trust, giving each child the opportunity to speak out about the preparation for the performance and the process of the game.

Teach children to create creative groups to prepare and conduct performances and concerts, using all available opportunities.

Learn to build a line of behavior in a role using attributes and costume details made with your own hands.

Encourage improvisation and the ability to feel free in a role. To cultivate artistic qualities, to reveal the creative potential of children, involving them in various theatrical performances: concert games, circus, showing scenes from plays. Provide opportunities for children to perform in front of peers, parents, and others


Didactic games. Organize didactic games, uniting children into subgroups of 2–4 people; learn to follow the rules of the game.

Develop memory, attention, imagination, thinking, speech, sensory abilities of children. Learn to compare objects, notice minor differences in their characteristics (color, shape, size, material, combine objects according to common characteristics, make a whole from parts (folding cubes, mosaics, puzzles, identify changes in the arrangement of objects (front, back, right, left) , under, above, in the middle, on the side)


To develop a desire to act with a variety of educational games and toys (folk, electronic, computer games, etc.)


Encourage children to be independent in the game, causing them to have an emotionally positive response to the game action .

Teach to obey the rules in group games. Foster creative independence. Develop qualities such as friendliness and discipline. Foster a culture of fair competition in competitive games.

School preparatory group (6-7 years old)

Continue to develop children's independence in organizing all types of games, following rules and norms of behavior.

Develop initiative and organizational skills. Foster a sense of teamwork.

Role-playing games. Continue to teach children to take on different roles in accordance with the plot of the game; use attributes, constructors, building materials.

Encourage children to organize their own game in their own way, independently select and create the items missing for the game (tickets for playing in the theater, money for shopping)


To promote the creative use in games of ideas about the surrounding life, impressions of works of literature, and cartoons.

Develop creative imagination, the ability to develop a game together, coordinating your own game plan with the plans of your peers; continue to develop the ability to negotiate, plan and discuss the actions of all players.

Form relationships based on cooperation and mutual assistance. Cultivate goodwill and willingness to help a peer; the ability to take into account the interests and opinions of fellow players and resolve disputes fairly.

Outdoor games. Teach children to use outdoor games of various content in their independent activities. Conduct games with elements of competition that promote the development of physical qualities (dexterity, speed, endurance, coordination of movements, ability to navigate in space.

Learn to fairly evaluate the results of the game.

Develop interest in sports (badminton, basketball, table tennis, hockey, football)

and folk games.

Theatrical games. To develop children's independence in organizing theatrical games.

Improve the ability to independently choose a fairy tale,

poem, song for production; prepare the necessary attributes and scenery for the future performance; distribute responsibilities and roles among themselves.

Develop creative independence, aesthetic taste in conveying an image; artistic skills. Learn to use means of expression (posture, gestures, facial expressions, intonation, movements)


Cultivate a love of theater. Widely use different types of theater in children's theatrical activities (bibabo, finger theater, cup theater, picture theater, glove theater, puppet theater, etc.).

To develop the skills of theatrical culture, to introduce them to theatrical and musical art through watching theatrical performances and video materials. Tell children about the theater and theatrical professions.

Learn to comprehend artistic images created by means of theatrical expressiveness (lighting, makeup, music, words, choreography, scenery, etc.)


Didactic games. Continue teaching children to play various educational games (lotto, mosaic, spillikins, etc.)

. Develop the ability to organize games and play the role of a leader.

Learn to coordinate your actions with the actions of the leader and other participants in the game. Develop intelligence in the game, the ability to independently solve a given problem .

Involve children in creating some didactic games ( “Noisemakers”

, etc.). Develop and consolidate sensory abilities. Promote the manifestation and development in the game of qualities necessary for preparing for school: voluntary behavior, associative figurative

and logical thinking, imagination, cognitive activity.

“Games with rules - types, features of use in a group”

Traditionally, a game with rules appears in modern domestic pedagogy as a kind of antagonist of a plot game. Most practical teachers quite rightly believe that story-based play, or as it is often called, creative play, can take the form of a child’s free and independent activity. Another thing is playing with rules. This type of play is presented either as an ordered motor activity organized by an adult, during which children do not simply move randomly, but obey rules, the implementation of which is monitored by the teacher. Another popular form of games with rules in kindergarten is children playing with printed board games, such as dominoes, lotto and “goose”. In all of these games, the main attention of all participants, children and adults, is paid to the content of the game, its plot basis.

Games with rules represent a very extensive layer of activity for a preschool child. It is generally accepted that play with rules is of great importance for the physical, sensory and mental development of children. But, as a number of modern scientists note, the main developmental significance of a game with rules is associated with its specific characteristics. First of all, this is the development of independent normative regulation of behavior in children. If there is a rule (norm) that is mandatory for all participants, there is a need to monitor their implementation. In children, in their independent activities, conditions are created and the need arises for the implementation of such an important moral principle as justice.

A game with rules is characterized by competitive relationships between participants. The child has the opportunity to independently distinguish himself from other children, in accordance with simple and understandable criteria. For the development of a child, the fact of not only winning, but also losing is important. The experience of failure in a game contributes to the emergence in the child’s character of very important qualities (perseverance, the ability to achieve a given task, etc.), which will be useful to him in later life.

The whole life of a preschooler is connected with play. Mastering the things around him, relationships between people, understanding the meanings that social life carries, the work and responsibilities of adults - he gets acquainted with all this while playing, imagining himself in the role of mom, dad, and so on.

During the preschool period, the basic volitional qualities of the individual begin to form: perseverance and perseverance, determination, quick decision-making and bold implementation of them; self-control, that is, lack of vehemence when a conflict arises, independence, responsibility and discipline. Preschool age is a unique period in a child’s life, in which the foundations of personality are laid, the arbitrariness of mental processes is developed, creativity, activity and initiative develop. All these important qualities are formed in the process of carrying out the preschooler’s leading activity - in play. The most important role in the development of older preschoolers is played by those qualities and mental processes that are associated with the child’s ability to carry out complex, detailed play activities, primarily role-playing games with a plot, with the distribution of roles and rules. One of these qualities is will. Features of the development of will in preschool childhood are: the formation of goal setting, the emergence of struggle and subordination of motives, the emergence of internal control in behavior, the development of the ability to exert volition, speech planning of activities, encouraging adults and peers to carry out their own plans, arbitrariness in the sphere of movements, actions, and also cognitive processes and communication with adults.

Didactic games

The games below will not only encourage the timid and cheer up the crying one, but will also calm the overly naughty child, redirect attention and help relax the angry, aggressive child.

Playing with a dog

Material. Toy dog.

Progress of the game. The teacher holds the dog in his hands and says:

Bow-wow! Who's there? This is a dog visiting us. I put the dog on the floor. Give Petya a paw, little dog! Then he approaches the child, whose name is named, with the dog and offers to take it by the paw and feed it. They bring a bowl of imaginary food, the dog “eats soup,” “barks,” and says “thank you!” to the child.

When repeating the game, the teacher calls the name of another child.

Collecting "treasures"

Material. Basket.

Progress of the game. During a walk, the teacher collects “treasures” (pebbles, pods, twigs, leaves, shells) with the child and puts them in a basket. Finds out which “treasures” arouse the greatest interest in the baby (this will suggest further ways of communication). Then he names some “treasure” and asks to take it out of the basket.

Making a collage

Material. Scraps of colored paper, greeting cards, string, pieces of foam, yarn, etc.

Progress of the game. The teacher spreads a large sheet of thick paper or cardboard on the table. Using a brush, coat a piece of foam plastic (postcard, etc.) with glue on one side and hand it to the child to stick it on the paper. Allows the child to choose the items he would like to stick on. After carefully observing the actions of an adult, the child will be able to apply the glue himself. The completed collage can be hung in a prominent place for everyone to admire.

(The game helps develop creative skills.)

Caught a fish

Material. Cardboard box, metal bottle caps (“fish”), magnet, stick and rope (for a fishing rod).

Progress of the game. Several metal bottle caps, preferably of different colors, are placed in a cardboard box. A stick is tied to one end of the rope (or ribbon), and a magnet bar is tied to the other. The teacher shows the child how to fish “fish” out of the box by attracting metal plugs with a magnet. If the corks are different colors, then the baby can be asked to pull out, for example, a red fish.

After all the plugs have been removed, the adult counts them (“That’s how many fish we caught!”), and the game starts over.

(The game helps develop coordination of movements.)

Let's ride a horse

Material. Rocking horse (if there is no horse, you can sit the child on your lap).

Progress of the game. The teacher puts the child on a rocking horse and says: “Masha is riding a horse, (says in a quiet voice) no-no.” The child repeats quietly: “No-no.” Adult: “To make the horse run faster, tell it loudly: “No-no, run, little horse!” (Swings the child more strongly.) The child repeats the phrase together with the teacher, then independently. The adult ensures that the child pronounces the sound “n” drawn out, and the entire sound combination loudly and clearly.

(The game develops speech activity).

Blow into or onto something

Progress of the game. The teacher blows on a small balloon through a straw, causing it to move around the room. Blows on all fingers, then on each one separately. Blows a leaf from the child's palm. Blows on a flower or blade of grass. The child repeats the actions of the adult.

Blow on the balloon, blow on the pinwheel, blow on the horn

Material. Balloon, pinwheel, horn.

Progress of the game. A balloon is suspended at the level of the child’s face, and a pinwheel and a horn are placed on the table in front of him. The teacher shows how to blow on a balloon so that it flies high, and invites the child to repeat the action. Then the adult blows on the turntable to make it spin, blows the horn, and the child repeats.

(The game promotes the development of the speech apparatus).

Book - guess what?

Material. Notebook with spiral wire.

Progress of the game. Paste pictures of objects known to the child across the page (on the right side) in the notebook. Each page without pictures is cut into several horizontal strips, starting from the left edge. Looking at the book with the baby, the teacher gradually turns away strip after strip. The child tries to guess what is shown in the picture.

(The game develops imagination and logical thinking).

Fun with a magnifying glass

Material. Magnifying glass (preferably plastic).

Progress of the game. During a walk, the teacher gives the child a blade of grass. Shows how to look at it through a magnifying glass. Invites the child to look through a magnifying glass at fingers and nails - this usually fascinates the baby. While walking around the site, you can examine a flower or the bark of a tree, examine a piece of earth: are there any insects there, etc.

(The game develops observation skills).

Walking along the outlines of different figures

Material. Wide dense tape (braid).

Progress of the game. Using tape, circles, squares, triangles, etc. are depicted on the floor. The teacher shows the child how to walk along the tape (start with a circle). An adult takes the baby by the hand, walks with him and sings to any tune: “We are walking in a circle, tra-la-la, tra-la-la. We go in a circle, tra-la-la, tra-la-la." This is how all the figures pass. Then the teacher tries to walk along them with the child, walking backwards, sideways, on tiptoes, jumping over the figure, etc.

(The game contributes to the development of ideas about objects).

Together with the bear

Material. Toy bear.

Progress of the game. The teacher talks “as equals” with the bear and the child, for example: “Katya, do you like drinking from a cup?”, “Misha, I like it. Knocks fist on fist, claps his hands. Alternating such actions, the teacher creates a certain sequence of sounds, for example: knock-clap, knock-knock-clap, knock-clap-clap, etc.

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